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Causes Of Common Leukemia Types , Diagnosis, Symptoms, and Treatment

Leukimia blood cancerImage via: www.kumc.edu

White Blood Cells (WBC) in the normal amount of work as a body soldier to fight the disease. On leukemia, bone marrow produces too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) which finally decreased production and function of normal blood cells. Community usually recognize leukemia as a blood cancer.

Leukemia, first recognised by the German pathologist Rudolf Virchow in 1847, starts when tissues such as bone marrow behave abnormally. This is caused by mutations in the DNA of bone marrow stem cells. Bone marrow stem cells produce billions of red blood cells and white blood cells each day, respectively carrying oxygen and fighting disease around all parts of the body.

Leukemia was referring to a group of blood diseases marked by the malignancy alias cancer on the networks that produce blood. These malignancies can come from the white blood cell, red blood cells, blood-chip (thrombocyte), or myeloid (cells found in bone marrow).

As with all cancers, leukemia is a broad term covering a spectrum of diseases. In leukemia, the diseases are classified according to the type of abnormal cell found most in the blood. Leukemia is also clinically split in to its acute and chronic forms.

The four main forms of Leukimia are:

* Acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) , also known as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is a cancer of the white blood cells, characterised by the overproduction and continuous multiplication of malignant and immature white blood cells (referred to as lymphoblasts) (ALL)

* Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is also known as Acute Myeloid Leukemia and is specifically a cancer of the myeloid line of white blood cells. It is the most commonly diagnosed type of adult leukemia, and is rare among children. These malignant cells calle (AML)

* Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a cancer in which too many lymphocytes ( white blood cells) are produced. CLL has two subtypes: T-cell and B-cell. The latter (B-cell) is the most common form (about 95%) and shows up mainly in the bone marrow and bl (CLL)

* Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a clonal stem cell disorder characterized by excessive proliferation of myeloid cells. Signs and symptoms The disease is often without specific symptoms. Often it is detected on a routine full bl (CML)

The most common forms in adults are AML and CLL, whereas in children ALL is most widely observed.

In other words, the type of leukemia is a cancer that can affect the bone marrow and the lymph system (spleen). Leukemia starts in the bone marrow and then spreads to the blood. From there it can spread to the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, central nervous system, and other organs. In general, leukemia is grouped in two, namely the form of acute (rapid growth) and chronic (slow growth).

According to the medical specialist Hematology and Medical Oncology, Prof. Dr. dr Arry Harryanto Reksodiputro, acute leukemia is not treated can cause death in only a month, caused by severe infection or bleeding.

And more distressing, many acute leukemia occurred in babies, and children. Meanwhile, the chronic leukemia, the disease progress slowly and generally does not cause damage to the other cells system in the body.

"That's why, when have a blood test, chronic leukemia patients may indicate that hemoglobin and trombosit is normal," said Arry at the launch of Novartis Oncology Access (NOA) in Jakarta.

Despite not directly or quickly cause the death, without proper handling of patients with chronic leukemia can be decreased quality of life. Arry cite, chronic leukemia that came from granulocyte (a type of white blood cells) causing people vulnerable affected by the attack of the disease.

"Granulocyte found under the skin and mucosa works as front lines in the fight against infection. If this Granulocyte does not exist or become abnormal, someone does not have protection on the first line," said Chairman of the National Coordination Board of Medical Hematology and Oncology In Indonesia.

One type of leukemia that can cause death and require intensive care is chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). This disease is suffered by 1-2 people per 100,000 population each year, with a range of average age 45-55. The occurrence of CML involves hematopoiesis, ie, formation of elements of the blood cells formed in the bone marrow.

"CML is a proliferative disease, where cell division occurs continuously in a progressive, so uncontrollable," said medical staff from Novartis, dr Early Arini.

Abnormal chromosome genes, known as the Philadelphia chromosome, considered as the main cause of occurrence of the CML. According to Dini, very high radiation exposure or industrial chemical substances (such benzena and formaldehyde) is also risk factors that should bewared by people.

Just as an additional information, in Indonesia there are about 250 patients with Chronic myelogenous (or myeloid) leukemia (CML), also known as chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL). Of these amount, almost half are in Jakarta, with high levels of pollution.

A person stated suffering CML when the examination results show a progressive increase white blood cell, Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph +), and BCR-ABL-positive (BCR-ABL +).

BCR-ABL is a kind of active protein tyrosine kinase that is not normal. In the CML patients, this protein is stimulates the cells to continue to split so the amount of it could be too excessive. That is why, one of the targeted therapy is aimed to hamper the performance of BCR-ABL. Unfortunately, examination BCRABL is relatively expensive, around Rp. 750.000-Rp. 1 million.

Despite often asymptomatic, CML is usually characterized by the enlargement of spleen. This matter is also supported with the results of laboratory data that shows such as increased white blood cell and red blood cells, anemia, and basophilia (basophil is increase).

The common symptoms felt by some patients like the body is weak, fatigue, body weight decreased, and the feeling in the stomach is full.

Up to now, CML patients are usually given Imatinib, the only therapy approved for use on the new diagnosed patients suffering from Ph + CML, and in chronic phase after failure using Interferon-alpha therapy or in accelerated phase or blast crisis.

Based on the results of clinical testing IRIS (International randomized Interferon versus ST1571) for 60 months, Imatinib has a 83 percent success rate after 60 months during handling.

Unfortunately, the price of these drugs is still very expensive, around Rp. 11, 5 million per box (60 tablets contents). In fact, the patient must consume four tablets per day, or two boxes per month.


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